Confidence and Security Building in Europe : Achievements and Lessons
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The present paper analyses the history of military confidence-building measures (CBM) in the CSCE process. It describes and analyses the first generation of CBM negotiated in Helsinki. These were mainly symbolic measures inaugurating a process based on the notion of shared interests in a divided Europe. The second generation of measures, confidence and security building measures - CSBM, were designed to provide an infrastructure to reduce the danger of surprise attack or short-warning attack. The third generation of measures need tobe designed to promote and shape political change. Finally the paper addresses the question of the relevance of the European experience to the Korean peninsula.